Penggunaan Analgesia Nonfarmakologis Saat Tindakan Invasif Minor pada Neonatus

Effa Triani, Munar Lubis


Pada perawatan rutin neonatus sering dilakukan tindakan invasif minor yang
menimbulkan rasa nyeri. Nyeri yang tidak ditanggulangi dapat menimbulkan efek jangka
panjang yaitu mempengaruhi respon afektif dan tingkah laku saat tindakan yang
menimbulkan nyeri berikutnya. Glukosa, sukrosa, pacifier, menyusui, skin to skin contact
dan stimulasi multisensori merupakan analgesia nonfarmakologis yang dapat mengurangi
rasa nyeri saat tindakan invasif minor pada neonatus, sehingga dapat dihindarkan
pemakaian analgesia farmakologis yang sering menimbulkan efek samping.

Kata Kunci

Analgesia nonfarmakologis; nyeri; neonatus

Teks Lengkap:



Selbst SM. Sedation and analgesia. Dalam: Fleisher GR,

Ludwig S, Henretig FM, Ruddy RM, Silverman BK,

penyunting. Texbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

Edisi ke-4. Philadelphia: Lippincott William &

Wilkins,2000. h. 59-69.

Mathew PJ, Mathew JL. Assessment and management

of pain in infants. PostgradMed J 2003;79:438-48.

Bar RG. Reflection on measuring pain in infants: dissociation

in responsive systems and “honest signaling“.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal 1998:79:152-6.

Infant pain. Pediatric Nursing, April 2003. Didapat dari:

Djik MV, Simons S, Tibboel D. Pain assesment in neonates.

Paed Perinatal Drug Ther 2004;6:97-103.

Pain management and sedation. Intensive care nursery

house staff manual. Didapat dari: http://www. ucsfhealth.


Porter FL, Wolf CM, Miller JP. Prosedural pain in newborn

infants: The influence of intensity and development.

Pediatrics 1999;104:1-10.

Jatana LCS, Dalal SLS, Wilson CCG. Analgesic effect

of oral glucose in neonates. MJAFI 2003;59:100-4.

Gradin M, Eriksson M, Holmqvist G, Holstein A,

Schollin J. Pain reduction at venipuncture in newborns:

oral glucose compared with local anesthetic cream. Pediatrics


Carbajal R, Veerapen S, Couderc S, Jugie M, Ville Y.

Analgesic effect of breast feeding in term neonates: randomized

controlled trial.BMJ 2003;326:1-5

Anand KJS, Phil D, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects in

the human neonate and fetus. The N Engl J Med


Gate control theory of pain. Didapat dari: http://

Jobonga. Gate control theory. Massage & natural therapies

clinic. Didapat dari


Anand KJS , Phil D and the International evidence based

group for neonatal pain. Consensus statement for the

prevention and management of pain in the newborn.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155:173-80 .

Carbajal R, Chauvet X, Couder S, Martin Mo. Randomized

trial of analgesic effects of sucrose, glucose, and

pacifiers in term neonates.BMJ 1999;319:1393-7.

Pitchard D. Reducing pain during blood sampling in

infants. April 2003. Didapat dari: http://www.


Endorphin. Didapat dari:


Todd T. Endorphins and Analgesia. Didapat dari: http:/


Johnston CC, Fillion F, Snider L. Routine sucrose analgesia

during the first week of life in neonates younger

than 31 weeks postconcepional age. Pediatrics 2002; 110:


Schul. Z. Endogenous analgesics ?. Dalam: Forth W,

Martin E, Peter K, penyunting. The Relief of pain.

Munich: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft, 1986. h.16-7.

Gray L, Miller LW, Philipp BL, Blass EM. Breastfeeding

is analgesic in healthy newborns. Pediatrics 2002;


Ren K, Blass EM, Zhou Q, Dubner R. Suckling and

sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and

spinal Fos expression forepaw inflammation in infant

rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1997;94:1471-5.

Gunnars MR, Fisch RO, Malone S. The effect of a pacifying

stimulus on behavioral and adrenocortical responses

to circumsision in the newborn. J Am Acad Child

Psych 1984:23;34-8.

Blass EM, Shide DJ, Zaw-Mon C, Sorrentino J. Mother

as shield: differential effects of contact and nursing on

pain responsiry in infant rats-evidence for nonopioid

mediation. Behav Neurosci.1995;109:342-3.

Potter B, Rindfleisch K. Breastfeeding reduces pain in

neonates. J. Fam. Prac. May 2003; 52:13-4.

Gray L, Watt L, Blass E. Skin to skin contact is analgesic

in healthy newborns. Pediatrics 2000;105:1-6.

Ruiz Pelaez JG, Charpak N, Cuervo LG. Kangaroo

mother care, an example to follow from developing countries.

BMJ 2000; 329:1179-81.

Gibbin S. Skin to skin contact with their mothers reduced

pain reactions in healthy newborn infants during

a heel lance. Commentary, Evid Based Nurs 2000;


Bellieni CV, Buonocore G, Nenci A, Franci N, Cordelli

DM, Bagnoli F. Sensorial saturation: An effective analgesic

tool for heel prick in preterm infants. Biol Neonate


Bellieni CV, Bagnoli F, Pettone S dkk. Effect of multisensory

stimulation on analgesia in term neonates: A randomized

controlled trial. Pediatr Res 2002;51:460-3.



  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.


Informasi Editorial:
Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia
Jl. Salemba I No 5, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: +62-21-3912577
Email: editorial [at]

Lisensi Creative Commons
Sari Pediatri diterbitkan oleh Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.